Nausea and Vomiting

General Illness Information

Medical Term: Not specified

Common Name: Nausea and vomiting

Description: Nausea is a painful sensation in the stomach and throat, which can be accompanied by weakness, increased salivation, sweating and often precedes vomiting.

Vomiting is a sharp involuntary emptying of the stomach.

Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of many diseases and conditions, from pregnancy to such serious pathologies as brain tumors, epilepsy and myocardial infarction.

Conditions that can can come along with nausea and vomiting:

  • pathology of the muscles of the eye;
  • osteochondrosis of the cervical ridge;
  • head injury;
  • vestibular neuritis;
  • pregnancy;
  • trauma of the spine;
  • stroke;
  • seasickness;
  • menstruation;
  • inflammation of the middle ear – labyrinthitis;
  • taking certain medicines;
  • migraine;
  • fistula (perilymphatic);
  • brain tumor;
  • SSS disease;
  • menopause in women;
  • stress;
  • Miniera disease;
  • anemia;
  • hypertension;
  • hypotension;
  • alcohol poisoning;
  • old age.

Causes:

  1. Diseases of the digestive tract:
    1. acute surgical diseases: peritonitis, appendicitis, acute pancreatitis, acute intestinal obstruction, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, acute cholecystitis;
    2. chronic diseases: gastritis, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer, enterocolitis, duodenitis, cholelithiasis;
    3. anomalies in the development of the digestive tract: constriction of the pylorus (stenosis), infection of the gastrointestinal tract (atresia), defects in the development of the pancreas;
    4. infections of the gastrointestinal tract: viral lesions, food poisoning, helminthiases;
    5. foreign bodies of the stomach, esophagus, intestines;
    6. functional disorders, which are accompanied by a violation of the motor function of the intestine, stomach.
  2. Central nervous system diseases: tumors and brain traumas, brain infections (encephalitis, meningitis), increased intracranial pressure;
  3. Diseases of the cardiovascular system: hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction;
  4. Diseases of the inner ear: Meniere’s disease, labyrinthitis;
  5. Diseases of the endocrine system: in diabetes mellitus – ketoacidosis, thyrotoxicosis, insufficiency of adrenal function, phenylketonuria;
  6. Side effects of drugs and the penetration of toxic substances into the body;
  7. Psychogenic reactions: fear and anxiety, hysterics, as an expression of some emotions – habitual vomiting;
  8. Vomiting and nausea may be the result of “motion sickness”;
  9. Often, vomiting occurs in women who are in the first trimester of pregnancy, during toxemia (gestosis).

Vomiting and nausea occur in many diseases. As a rule, nausea proceeds vomiting, and vomiting causes a sense of relief. But this is not always the case, so the presence or absence of nausea is one of the main criteria for diagnosis.

Signs & Symptoms:

The duration of nausea and vomiting and the time of their appearance depend on their underlying cause. For example, nausea and / or vomiting almost immediately after a meal can indicate gastritis (inflammation of the gastric mucosa), within 1-8 hours after eating – about poisoning.

With prolonged vomiting, signs of dehydration may occur:

  • dry mouth;
  • thirst;
  • sunken eyes;
  • rare urination, decrease in the amount of urine, urine of dark color.

There are also a number of symptoms that are signs of dangerous, life-threatening conditions and require immediate medical attention:

  • an admixture of blood in the vomit;
  • severe headache, disorientation, impaired consciousness;
  • abdominal pain;
  • signs of dehydration;
  • dyspnea;
  • vomiting, which lasts longer than a day (for children – several hours, especially in combination with diarrhea and fever).

Most often, vomiting and nausea take disappear within 6-24 hours. If you observe these symptoms for a week and if you suspect a possible pregnancy, you should also seek medical advice.

Diagnosis:

Traditional detailed questioning of the patient, instrumental and laboratory methods of diagnosis:

  • clinical blood test – to find out the nature of the disease (whether it is infectious or any other);
  • blood chemistry – to evaluate the function of almost any organ, to learn the level of glucose in the body and the level of metabolic products;
  • fibrogastroduodenoscopy – to exclude diseases of the stomach, esophagus and duodenum;
  • radiography of the digestive tract with the use of radiopaque substances to identify the disease throughout the gastrointestinal tract;
  • additional diagnostic methods: computed tomography, ECG, ultrasound.

Treatment:

To get rid of vomiting, you first need to identify the cause of this condition. Symptomatic treatment of vomiting is carried out with various groups of drugs:

  • mild vomiting: neuroleptics (etaperazine, haloperidol), tranquilizers (fenozepam, diazepam);
  • vomiting caused by diseases of the inner ear: antihistamines (dimenhydrinate, promethazine hydrochloride).

In symptomatic treatment, dopamine antagonists (cerucal, metoclopramide) are very effective. Cisapride (stimulant motor function of the gastrointestinal tract) has a great peripheral effect, in addition, it does not cause serious side effects.

Vomiting caused by chemotherapy for cancer is treated with antagonists of serotonin receptors (granisetron, ondansetron, troposetron).

To avoid dehydration of the body and electrolyte imbalance with frequent vomiting, saline solutions are used: for internal use – rehydron, for intravenous administration – Ringer’s solution.

Possible Complications:

In most cases, nausea and vomiting do not pose a danger to the body. However, prolonged vomiting, especially in combination with diarrhea, can lead to serious dehydration and, as a result, to disruption of the cardiovascular system, brain, kidneys and other organs. This is especially actual for young children, who can not control dehydration themselves. Pregnant women may experience excessive vomiting, which disrupts the balance of electrolytes in the blood and threatens the life of the mother and fetus.

Prevention:

  1. Adults should drink a small amount of sweet liquid, which soothes the stomach, take a sitting or lying position and relax. Physical activity increases nausea and vomiting;
  2. If you travel with children by car, put the child in the front seat. This will prevent motion sickness and nausea;
  3. If a child has severe cough and high fever, give him a mild antipyretic;
  4. Do not give your child eat and drink too much during snacks, limit the amount of sweets and carbonated drinks and do not let them play or run immediately after eating.

Diet:

Take drinks that favorably affect the intestines and have an anti-inflammatory effect:

  • compotes of dried fruits, apples;
  • kissels from rose hips, blueberries, currants, quinces;
  • apple juice;
  • lean broth;
  • broths and infusions of chamomile, St. John’s wort, eucalyptus, mint, currant, ginger, lemon balm.

Exclude carbonated drinks, sugar juices. Drinking diet should last no longer than one day, after which you should gradually start eating. In vomiting continues, eat only boiled rice porridge or drink a rice broth. This meal will help to overcome the gag reflex, remove symptoms of intoxication, improve the work of the gastrointestinal tract. But you should eat in small portions not to overload the stomach and not cause vomiting. Food should not be cold and hot, but also spicy and oily not to irritate the mucous membrane of the digestive tract.

Other recommended foods: porridges of rice and oatmeal, carrot puree, baked apples, bananas, crackers, meat and vegetable broths. The third day: low-fat yogurt, curd casseroles, meat puree, omelette. The fourth day: a small piece of low-fat boiled meat, steam cutlets, fish boiled or cooked on steam, low-fat cottage cheese, boiled or baked vegetables.

If the condition improves, the diet should be observed for at least another week. Food should still be lean and help restore intestines. At the same time, eat protein foods (meat, fish, eggs), mucous porridges, low-fat cottage cheese and bananas as a vitamin and mineral source. Switch to normal diet gradually. Continue taking drinks that normalize the functions of the digestive system and have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties: decoctions of chamomile, dog rose, St. John’s wort, mint, apple juice, kissels and compotes.

Other:

Not specified.

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