Mental Disorders

General Illness Information

Medical Term: Nothing specified

Common Name: Mental disorder, mental illness

Description: Mental disorders are a general concept that includes not only mental illnesses, but also mental states other than normal.

Classification:

There is a classification of personality disorders, which groups all diseases of a similar nature according to the predisposing factor and clinical manifestation. This allows clinicians to diagnose more quickly and prescribe the most effective therapy.

Mental disorders are divided into:

  • a change in the psyche that was caused by drinking alcohol or using drugs;
  • organic mental disorders – caused by disruption of the normal brain functioning;
  • affective pathology – the main clinical sign is the frequent change of mood;
  • schizophrenia and schizotypic diseases – such conditions have specific symptoms, which include a sharp change in the character of the person and the lack of adequate action;
  • phobias and neuroses. Symptoms of such disorders can arise with respect to the subject, phenomenon or person;
  • behavioral syndromes associated with eating disorders, sleep, or sexual relations;
  • mental retardation. Such a violation refers to borderline mental disorders, since they often arise against intrauterine pathologies, heredity and childbirth;
  • disorders of psychological development;
  • disorders of activity and concentration of attention are the most characteristic mental disorders in children and adolescents. Expressed in disobedience and hyperactivity of the child.

Similar pathologies in the adolescent age category:

  • prolonged depressive state;
  • bulimia and anorexia nervosa;
  • druncorexia.

Types of children’s mental disorders:

  • autism;
  • mental retardation;
  • developmental delays;
  • attention deficit disorder.

Abnormalities in the elderly:

  • paranoia;
  • dementia;
  • Alzheimer’s disease;
  • marasmus;
  • Pick’s disease.

Mental disorders in epilepsy:

  • an epileptic mood disorder;
  • transient mental disorders;
  • mental attacks.

The long-term consumption of alcohol-containing beverages leads to the development of the following psychological personality disorders:

  • psychosis;
  • white fever;
  • delirium;
  • hallucinations.

Trauma to the brain can be a factor in development:

  • twilight state;
  • delirium;
  • onyroid.

Classification of mental disorders that have arisen against the background of somatic diseases, includes:

  • asthenic neurosis-like condition;
  • Korsakov’s syndrome;
  • dementia.

Malignant neoplasms can cause:

  • various hallucinations;
  • affective disorders;
  • memory impairment.

Types of personality disorder, formed due to vascular pathologies of the brain:

  • vascular dementia;
  • cerebral vascular psychosis.

Causes:

Today, the precise causes of some mental pathologies are not known. Mental disorder can be caused by various etiological factors. However, all of them are predetermined by a violated functioning of the brain.

Pathological reasons for mental disorders include:

  • the course of various infectious diseases, which can either have a negative effect on the brain, or appear against the background of intoxication;
  • the defeat of other systems, for example, the course of diabetes mellitus or a previous stroke can cause the development of psychoses and other mental pathologies. Often they cause a disease in the elderly;
  • craniocerebral trauma;
  • oncology of the brain;
  • congenital malformations and anomalies.

The external etiological factors include:

effect of chemical compounds on the body. This includes poisoning with toxic substances or poisons, random reception of medicines or harmful food components, harmful habits;
long-term influence of stressful situations or nervous overstresses that can persecute a person both at work and at home;
improper education of the child or frequent conflicts between peers lead to a mental disorder in adolescents or children.

Violations of the psyche, like no other pathologies, are closely related to the presence of such deviations in relatives. Knowing this, you can prevent the development of a disease.

In addition, mental disorders in women can be caused by labor.

Signs & Symptoms:

Clinical signs of a mental disorder are purely individual, nevertheless all of them can be divided into disturbances in mood, thinking abilities and behavioral reactions.

The most obvious signs of such violations:

  • a causeless change of mood or hysterical laughter;
  • difficulty in concentrating, even when performing the simplest tasks;
  • conversations when there is no one around;
  • hallucinations – auditory, visual or combined;
  • decreased or increased sensitivity to irritants;
  • dips or lack of memory;
  • inconvenient learning;
  • misunderstanding of events around;
  • decrease in efficiency and adaptation in the society;
  • depressive state and apathy; sensation of pain and discomfort in various areas of the body;
  • unjustified beliefs;
  • sudden fear;
  • euphoria and dysphoria;
  • acceleration or inhibition of the thought process.

Such symptoms are typical for psychological disorder in children and adults. However, there are several more specific symptoms, depending on the sex of the patient.

Women can experience:

  • sleep disorders, insomnia;
  • frequent overeating or refusal to eat;
  • addiction to alcohol abuse;
  • violation of sexual function;
  • irritability;
  • severe headaches;
  • causeless fears and phobias.

In men, unlike women, mental disorders are diagnosed several times more often. The most common symptoms include:

  • inaccurate appearance;
  • avoidance of hygiene procedures;
  • isolation and touchiness;
  • a sudden change in mood;
  • humiliation of other people.

Diagnosis:

Mental disorder can be diagnosed on the basis of certain behavioral disorders and the presence (or absence) of certain somatic diseases. The diagnosis can be made by a psychiatrist.

Treatment:

The therapy of mental disorders will be individual for each patient. Drug therapy in most cases involves the use of:

  • sedatives;
  • tranquillizers – for relief of anxiety and anxiety;
  • neuroleptics – to suppress acute psychosis;
  • antidepressants – to combat depression;
  • nootropics.

Other measures:

  • auto-training;
  • hypnosis;
  • suggestion;
  • neuro-linguistic programming.

All procedures are performed by a psychiatrist. Good results can be achieved with the help of traditional medicine, but only if they are approved by the attending physician.

The list of the most effective natural substances:

  • the bark of the poplar and the root of the gentian;
  • burdock and a thousand;
  • Melissa and Valerian root;
  • St. John’s wort and kava-kava;
  • cardamom and ginseng;
  • mint and sage;
  • clove and licorice root;
  • honey.

Treatment of mental disorders should be comprehensive.

Possible Complications:

Many mental disorders without proper therapy can progress and carry a potential danger both for the patient himself and for others.

Prevention:

The main recommendation is early diagnosis and timely complex therapy of those pathologies that can cause mental illness. In addition, it is necessary to comply with several simple rules for the prevention of mental disorders:

  • refuse bad habits;
  • take medication only as directed by a clinician and with strict dosage;
  • avoid stress and nerve stress if possible;
  • comply with all safety rules when dealing with toxic substances;
  • undergo a full medical examination several times a year, especially if your relatives have mental disorders.

Only when all the above recommendations are implemented, a favorable forecast can be achieved.

Other:

Not specified.

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