General Illness Information
Medical Term: Dermatoses
Common Name: Skin diseases
Description: Dermatoses are a common name for a variety of skin diseases
Dermatologists have traditionally been divided dermatoses into the following groups:
- pustular diseases – pyoderma;
- viral diseases;
- mycoses (fungal lesions of the skin and its appendages);
- allergic dermatoses;
- hereditary skin lesions;
- parasitic dermatoses;
- paranocological lesions, skin tumors and others.
Dermatoses can be also classified in accordance with the mechanism of their development and some external signs:
- skin infections;
- bullous disorders;
- papulosquamous changes, manifested by the formation of rash and scales, in particular, psoriasis;
- urticaria and erythema;
- diseases caused by radiation;
- diseases of the appendages of the skin, for example, nails;
- other dermatoses.
External causes of dermatoses:
- Non-compliance with personal hygiene;
- Living in poor sanitation;
- Allergy to some substances, medications, animal, house dust, food;
- Allergic reaction to toxins of various fauna, caused by bites of a wasp or bee, mosquito, spider, snake, cat, dog, jellyfish and others;
- The reaction of the body to high or low temperatures, strong winds and various climatic conditions unusual for the organism;
- Skin trauma (cuts, punctures), especially systematic;
- Burns of various etiology – chemical, thermal, solar and others;
- Unfavorable ecological situation;
- Various infections of the skin – viruses, bacteria, fungus, especially staphylococcus, streptococci, herpes virus, measles virus, fungus of the genus Candida.
Internal causes of dermatoses:
- Diseases and pathologies of the cardiovascular, digestive, nervous, endocrine, immune and other systems;
- Reduction or disruption of the functioning of the immune system (immunity) is a fairly common cause of dermatoses, since the immunity is responsible for the adequate response of the organism to causative agents;
- Infectious diseases (ARI, sinusitis, hepatitis, caries and others) and inflammatory processes that violate the functioning of immunity;
- Diseases of the hematopoietic system – sometimes dermatoses develop against the background of leukemia or lymphoma;
- Violations of metabolic processes;
- Systematic stresses;
- Hormonal changes;
- Intoxication (poisoning) of the child with some substance in the intrauterine period of development;
- The aging of the body, thinning of the skin and a decrease in its protective properties.
Signs & Symptoms:
- Bubbles. They can be small (vesicles) or relatively large (blue);
- Hypermedia and swelling of the skin, polymorphic eruptions (vesicles);
- Formation of crusts, thickening of the skin, wetness;
- Intense itching.
Diagnosis of dermatosis includes the following methods of examination:
- Visual inspection;
- Study of the rash under a microscope;
- Prescribing allergic samples to the suspected pathogen;
- Skin biopsy;
Additional diagnostic methods:
- General blood analysis;
- Blood chemistry;
- General urine analysis;
- Biochemical analysis of urine.
There are two directions in the treatment of dermatoses:
- General treatment;
- Local therapy.
It is necessary to influence the nervous system to restore the normal reactivity of the body. For this, the following methods are used:
- administration of drugs with sedative or soothing effects, less often – antidepressants, antipsychotics, tranquillizers, ganglion blockers, antiadrenergics;
- physiotherapy (electrosleep, acupuncture and others).
The doctor will help to identify the allergen.
When the allergic nature of the disease should be tried to identify and eliminate the allergen. If such a factor is one, a specific hypensensibilization is used: low doses of the allergen are introduced into the body to restore the normal reactivity of the organism.
Non-specific hyposensitization using antihistamines, calcium preparations (chloride, gluconate, lactate) and sodium (thiosulfite).
- Group B, which have an anti-inflammatory effect;
- A and E, normalizing keratinization, possessing antioxidant and antimicrobial action;
- Retinoids (synthetic derivatives of vitamin A) to treat acne and psoriasis;
- Nicotinic acid, improving the blood supply of tissues;
- D, used in the treatment of psoriasis and skin tuberculosis.
Glucocorticosteroid hormones for systemic use (i.e., in the form of tablets and injectable solutions) should be administered only in severe cases when other treatments do not help. They have many side effects and serious complications: Cushing’s syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, peptic ulcer, exacerbation of infectious diseases and others.
If dermatosis is caused by a microbial agent – antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, doxycycline), antifungal drugs (nystatin, ketoconazole, griseofulvin, natamycin). These drugs can cause allergic reactions and toxic skin lesions.
In the treatment of photodermatoses, psoriasis, red flat lichen – synthetic antimalarials (chloroquine and plaquenyl). They reduce photosensitivity, have anti-inflammatory and hyposensitizing effect.
Widely used immunocorrecting therapy: immunomodulators, gamma globulin, interferons, recombinant monoclonal antibodies. In psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus – cytostatics (methotrexate).
The main rules of external therapy:
- Treatment is prescribed individually, depending on the severity of the disease, the depth of the skin lesion, effectiveness and many other factors;
- Surface-effect – powders, lotions, shaken mixtures, pastes;
- With chronic and deep lesions – you need to apply creams, ointments, lacquers, patches, compresses.
The main groups of drugs:
- anti-inflammatory (topical glucocorticoids);
- antipruritic (menthol, anesthesin, sulfur preparations, tar, glucocorticoids);
- disinfectants (iodine, boric acid, antibiotics and many other means);
- keratoplastic (ichthyol, naphthalan, salicylic acid in low concentration);
- keratolytic (salicylic, lactic acid in a high concentration);
- cauters (salicylic acid, resorcinol in high concentration, silver nitrate);
- fungicidal (iodine, sulfur, tar and others);
- photoprotective (tannin, salol, para-aminobenzoic acid).
Most of the means for external therapy has a complex effect. In addition, the effect often depends on the concentration of the drug.
Diet is an important point in the treatment of dermatosis. The correct diet improves the course of the disease and increases the positive prognosis for recovery.
Foods you should refuse with dermatoses: fat (pork, fatty fish, beef), fried, smoked, caviar, eggs, milk, preserves, legumes, sauerkraut, red vegetables and berries, some dried fruits (raisins, figs, dates , dried apricots), sweet soda, coffee, dye yoghurts, chocolate, some kinds of honey, mayonnaise, ketchup, spices, chips and other unhelpful and harmful food products.
- Skin pigmentation;
- Edema Quincke;
Prevention of dermatitis includes the following recommendations:
- Observe the rules of personal hygiene;
- Avoid contact with allergens;
- Give up unhelpful and harmful foods and foods that you are allergic to;
- Give preference to foods enriched with vitamins and trace elements;
- Refuse alcohol, smoking;
- Avoid stress; if necessary, change the place of work;
- Observe all safety precautions when handling aggressive chemicals;
- Do not let the disease become chronic;
- Observe the safety rules at work.