Cardiovascular Diseases

General Illness Information

Common Name: Heart disease

Medical Term: Cardiovascular disease

Classification:

Disorders may appear in any part of the cardiovascular system.The most common cardiovascular diseases:

  • Angina pectoris;
  • Myocardial infarction;
  • Heart failure;
  • Myocarditis;
  • Arrhythmias;
  • Arterial hypertension;
  • Endocarditis;
  • Heart defects, etc.

They are based on various pathological mechanisms:

  • Violation of the coronary circulation – a decrease in blood flow to the myocardium, which causes oxygen starvation and irreversible changes in the heart muscle;
  • Disorders of the “throughput” of valves;
  • Heart rhythm disturbances;
  • The inability of the heart to fully pump blood through the body, etc.

Symptoms:

  • Pain in the heart;
  • Dyspnea;
  • Swelling of the feet;
  • Insomnia or drowsiness;
  • Strong heartbeat, inconsistent heart rhythm.

Risk Factors:

  • Age. Statistics show that almost 80% of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases in the world fall on the age group older than 55 years. This means that people who have crossed the 55-year border are more likely to suffer from these diseases than younger people;
  • Heredity. Family history plays a significant role. If one of your closest blood relatives has suffered from cardiovascular diseases and died for the same reason, then you automatically fall into the risk group and the chance of developing such a disease in the future increases. Especially if you are unhealthy;
  • Sex. Studies show that men tend to be more prone to developing heart and blood diseases. In addition, they develp them at an earlier age than women;
  • Race. One of the most common risk factors for cardiovascular disease is the race. Representatives of the European race rarely develop heart disease than representatives of other racial groups – African and Asian. If you or one of your close blood relatives belongs to one of these racial groups, then you should be more careful.

The above factors you received at birth. You can not influence them in any way, but there are other factors, more serious, but completely controlled by you. Managing these factors, you can significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease:

  • Weight. If you are obese or have excessive weight, you need to exercise regularly. Studies show that women and men with the type of figure “O” are most prone to heart diseases. Therefore, it is very important to follow a healthy lifestyle, have proper nutrition and regular physical activity;
  • Alcohol and smoking. Another important cause of cardiovascular disease is regular smoking and alcohol consumption;
  • Arterial hypertension, high cholesterol. In fact, such signs as angina and pain in the heart area arise mainly due to blockage of the arteries with fat deposits, which prevents normal blood supply to the heart;
  • Diabetes. Uncontrolled and even controlled diabetes can lead to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, if you have diabetes, take care of your health;
  • Stressful situations. Responsible work, stressful situations or other acute experiences can actually double your chances of getting heart disease.

Medications:

To treat cardiovascular diseases, the following groups of drugs are used:

  1. Nitrates are prescribed for the dilatation of coronary vessels and reduction of myocardial ischemia. First of all, they are used for angina pectoris. In addition, nitrates are high-speed (in the form of tablets, sprays, for example, nitroglycerin, nitrospray, nitromite) and long-acting (different dosage forms based on isosorbide mono- and dinitrate). A frequent side effect of nitrates is a headache, in addition, blood pressure may decrease;
  2. Antiaggregants are used for coronary heart disease. They are prescribed for all forms of IHD, with defects, after heart surgery. They do not allow the formation of blood clots. Most often, cardiology uses drugs based on low-dose aspirin and ticlopidine. The most frequent side effect of taking aspirin is a drug gastropathy. To protect the stomach, patients take antiplatelet agents in the enteric coating;
  3. Anticoagulants reduce blood coagulationan. Anticoagulants can be direct (heparin, fractiparin, enoxaparin) and indirect (warfarin). They are used both for acute diseases (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, all forms of atrial fibrillation), and in other situations (for example, after implantation of an artificial heart valve);
  4. Beta-blockers block beta-adrenoreceptors of the heart and blood vessels, due to which some useful clinical effects occur. The heart rate decreases, myocardium decreases in oxygen, blood pressure decreases. Beta-blockers can be short (atenolol, metoprolol tartrate) and long-acting (metoprolol succinate, bisoprolol, nebivolol, betaxolol), nonselective (propranolol) and selective (bisoprolol). These drugs are used for angina pectoris, heart attack, arterial hypertension, etc. Beta-blockers are contraindicated in certain diseases of the respiratory system (bronchial asthma, COPD), as they strengthen bronchial obstruction;
  5. Calcium channel blockers (verapamil, nifedipine, amlodipine) are used for arrhythmias (for example, verapamil is used for supraventricular tachycardia), some are used primarily to combat high blood pressure (including pulmonary hypertension);
  6. Diuretics are divided into several subgroups according to the mechanism of action. These include furosemide, torasemide, hypothiazide, indapamide, veroshpiron and other agents. They are used for swelling of the lungs, congestive heart failure, arterial hypertension. Overdose can cause electrolyte disorders, so these drugs are prescribed with caution;
  7. ACE inhibitors. They are used in the treatment of IHD, chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension. Also, their use is indicated for myocardial infarction and heart failure, they are recommended to reduce cardiac remodeling (that is, to prevent the occurrence of irreversible structural changes). Drugs are contraindicated in stenosis of the renal arteries;
  8. Blockers of angiotensin II receptors (valsartan, telmisartan) are related to the previous group. They lower blood pressure;
  9. Lipid-lowering drugs (atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin) and fibrates (fenofibrate). They decrease the content of cholesterol in the blood and its fractions – the main “culprits” of atherosclerosis, leading to heart disease. These drugs does not produce a significant clinical effect (that is, the patient does not feel the apparent relief), but improve the prognosis of the disease and help prolong the life of patients;
  10. Antiarrhythmic drugs are used for various heart rhythm disorders, both separately and in combinations with each other. Certain drugs , for example, beta-blockers and calcium antagonists, have definite antiarrhythmic activity;
  11. Cardiac glycosides are prescribed for circulatory failure, sometimes for acute cardiovascular diseases. Glycosides increase the strength and effectiveness of cardiac contractions.

Diet:

  • According to WHO recommendations, a person should eat at least 400 g of vegetables and fruits a day;
  • Limit sugar;
  • Limit table salt to 4-5 g. per day;
  • Limit foods rich in cholesterol (caviar, brains, liver, butter, sour cream, cream, eggs).
  • Eat products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids – seafood, fish – 2 times a week; Vegetable oils – linseed, olive, corn, sunflower – about 2 tablespoons / day;
  • Eat foods rich in potassium and magnesium: dried fruits, nuts, porridges, baked potatoes;
  • Limit alcohol consumption to 20 g / day.

Prevention:

  • Systolic blood pressure should be lower than 140 mm Hg;
  • do not smoke;
  • Total cholesterol level should be below 5 mmol / l;
  • Cholesterol of low density lipoproteins should be below 3 mmol / l;
  • Walk 3 km per day or 30 minutes of any other moderate physical activity;
  • Eat foods with a lower sodium content;
  • Eat at least 5 fruits and vegetables a day;
  • Prevent obesity and diabetes.

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