Kidney Infection, Chronic (Pyelonephritis, Chronic)

General Illness Information

Medical Term:
Kidney Infection, Chronic (Pyelonephritis, Chronic)

Common Name: None Specified

Description: Chronic infection of the kidneys, resulting from anatomic abnormalities of the kidneys or the urinary system.

Causes: Chronic pyelonephritis occurs only in patients with major anatomic abnormalities, such as obstructive uropathy, kidney stones, or, most commonly, reflux of urine at the junction of the bladder and ureter.


  • Obtain prompt medical treatment for acute kidney infections, including 2 or more weeks of antibiotic treatment.
  • Don’t discontinue prescribed medication even if symptoms disappear after a few days of treatment.
  • Obtain treatment for any abnormality of the urinary tract that causes infection.

Signs & Symptoms

  • Usually no signs or symptoms, unlike acute kidney infections
  • Symptoms and signs (e. g., fever, flank or abdominal pain) are often vague and inconsistent

Risk Factors

  • History of diabetes mellitus.
  • Vesico-ureteral reflux, in children.
  • Urinary obstruction, such as stones or tumors.

Diagnosis & Treatment

For diagnosis, urinalysis and urine culture; cytoscopy (visual examination of the inside of the urinary bladder by means of a cystoscope, a slender optical instrument with a lighted tip); ultrasound; intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Other special tests may be recommended.

General Measures:

  • Follow your treatment plan carefully. This may not be easy for an illness that causes few symptoms in the early stages.
  • Surgery to relieve obstruction or malformation in the urinary tract, if one exists.


Antibiotics for months or years – if ongoing infection is present.


No restriction.


No restriction.

Possible Complications:

  • Untreated, chronic pyelonephritis can lead to renal failure.
  • Hypertension.


  • Prognosis depends on the state of the kidneys at diagnosis.
  • Early infections, malformations and abnormalities if treated in time will result in excellent prognosis.


‘Nothing Specified’.

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