Hypotension

General Illness Information

Common Name: Low blood pressure

Medical Term: Hypotension 

Description: Arterial hypotension is a prolonged condition characterized by low blood pressure. The figures do not exceed 100 and 60 mm Hg. Art. respectively.

Causes:

  • Hereditary predisposition;
  • Constitutional features

Secondary hypotension develops against the background of other diseases (hepatitis, peptic ulcer, anemia, allergic reactions, poisoning, as a result of side effects of some drugs).

Causes of acute hypotension: acute blood loss, massive trauma, poisoning, severe heart failure, anaphylactic shock, etc.

Scientists believed that chronic hypotension can be caused by various disorders in the functioning of systems that maintain normal blood pressure:

  • Reduction in the volume of circulating blood, causes: dehydration, blood loss;
  • Decreased work of the heart, causes: heart failure, heart disease, heart muscle disease;
  • Decrease in the tone of arterial vessels, causes: vegetative disorders, poisoning, allergic reactions;
  • Taking medications that reduce blood pressure: large doses of antihypertensive drugs.

Signs & Symptoms:

The clinical picture of the disease consists of objective and subjective symptoms. Doctors note only three symptoms of hypotension:

  • increased sweating;
  • pale skin (especially noticeable on the face);
  • decreased body temperature.

Subjective symptoms are complaints of patients. These include:

  • emotional instability;
  • bad mood and apathy, indifference;
  • a significant decrease in efficiency;
  • unmotivated irritability.

The main symptom of low blood pressure is a headache, which can have a different character – aching, pulsating, bursting, harsh. There is a slight dizziness, but in the case of an orthostatic hypotension. More often people with low blood pressure wake up tired and weakened (this sign may be a sign of the syndrome of chronic fatigue – differential diagnostics is needed), workability returns to them only after a couple of hours and lasts for a short while, and the overall activity peak appears only in the evening .

As a rule, people with hypotension can not tolerate stuffiness.

People with low blood pressure can negatively react to weather changes – it is a matter of meteorological dependence. Hypotonics do not tolerate heat, but they react even worse to humidity, overcastness and windiness.

With low arterial pressure, absolutely unspecific symptoms may appear – for example, heartburn, epigastric pain, constipation, nausea. Men with hypotension may notice a decrease in potency, and women notice irregular menstrual cycle. Many patients note the meteorological dependence and increased fatigue.

Treatment:

Treatment methods of arterial hypotension directly depend on its cause. If it is caused by a disease, then it’s necessary to eliminate the underlying disease. If arterial hypotension is provoked by neurovegetative disorders, then it is necessary to eliminate the existing imbalance.

For this, it is possible to use methods of drug and non-pharmacological correction, such as:

  • Normalization of wakefulness and rest. Loads should be sparing, people with hypotension should sleep no less than 8 hours. At the same time, do not stay in a horizontal position for too long;
  • Correction of the diet. Meals should be frequent, but in small portions. Preference should be given to light and not too hot foods. Increase the amount of salt to 10-20 g per day, if this is not contraindicated. At the same time, you need to drink at least 2 liters of water. Refuse alcohol;
  • Hydrotherapy, which includes Scottish shower, hydromassage, mineral baths, Charcot’s shower, etc.;
  • Aromatherapy, acupuncture;
  • Physiotherapy techniques, for example, electrosleep and electrophoresis of the collar zone;
  • Implementation of complexes of therapeutic physical activity, including swimming, walking, gymnastics.

Medications:

  • Plant adaptogens: tincture of magnolia vine, ginseng, aralia;
  • Midodrin improves the well-being of patients and rarely causes side effects;
  • Adrenomimetics: Phenylephrine, Ephedrine, Caffeine;
  • Cerebroprotectors: Vinpocetine, Actovegin, Cinnarizine;
  • Nootropics: Piracetam, Glycine;
  • Antioxidants and vitamin complexes;
  • Antidepressants and tranquilizers.

Possible Complications:

  • Cerebral hypotonic crisis;
  • Cardiac hypotonic crisis;
  • Cerebral stroke;
  • Myocardial infarction;
  • Thrombophlebitis;
  • Thrombosis of blood vessels.

Prevention:

  • A healthy lifestyle is the best way to prevent hypotension. This includes a rational diet, exercise, rest and procedures that strengthen the vessels (massage, contrast shower, whirlpool, swimming);
  • Avoid stress. It is important to enjoy the work, feel indispensable both at work and in the family. Negative emotions often become the decisive factor provoking a sharp and strong decrease in blood pressure;
  • Proteins, C and B vitamins are useful in the treatment and prevention of hypotension.

Diet:

It is very important to eat properly. Foods that increase pressure include yeast products (bakery products), milk, potatoes, carrots, nuts, honey. Beets and beet juice normalizes the pressure (if there are no gastrointestinal problems). The patient should drink at least 100 ml of this juice twice a day. Significant improvement occurs within a week. Eat salty foods and drink a glass of water and a half teaspoon of salt a day.

Other:

Not specified.

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