Blood Disorders

Types of blood disorders:

  • Anemia is one of the most common diseases associated with a decrease in levels of erythrocytes in blood. The disease occurs for various reasons. This may be a decrease in the level of hemoglobin or the production of red blood cells, in which the process of cell destruction goes beyond the normality. Another reason is the loss of a large number of red blood cells due to heavy bleeding.
  • Polycythemia is associated with an excessive level of erythrocytes. The causes of polycythemia are unknown to scientists. The disease is characterized by an abnormal increase in the level of red blood cells and an increase in the number of platelets and leukocytes.
  • Hemophilia is a hereditary disease associated with impaired blood coagulation. In this case, hemorrhages occur in the joints, muscles and internal organs, both spontaneous, and as a result of trauma or surgical intervention.
  • Agammaglobulinemia is a hereditary deficiency of gamma globulins (serum plasma proteins) in the blood. It shows a tendency towards bacterial diseases – otitis media, pneumonia, meningitis, pyoderma, etc. – and the development of septic conditions.
  • Leukemia is a whole group of diseases associated with the transformation of blood cells into malignant formations. Despite the development of medicine, scientists can not explain the cause of leukemia. During the acute form of leukemia, the disease is extremely difficult to treat, urgent medical intervention is required. The chronic form of leukemia is less dangerous for a patient’s life, the disease flow is slow, and with the necessary therapy the patient can live many years.

Treatment:

Treatment of a blood disorder comes from a diagnosis. In case of anemia, a transfusion of erythrocyte mass is indicated.

Dosctors may prescribe the following medications:

  • iron preparations are being introduced;
  • B-12 vitamins or folic acid in the proper dosage;
  • preparations stabilizing erythrocyte membranes;
  • glucocorticoids and erythropoietins.

Leukemia is treated in the hospital using various schemes of cytotoxic drugs (the choice is based on the type of disease). Therapy of thrombocytopenia includes glucocorticoids, chemotherapy with alkaloids. According to indications, splenectomy can be performed. With thrombocytopathy, hemostatics (dicinone, etamzilate) and vasodilating preparations (vitamin C, rutin) are prescribed. Patients shoud follow a special diet. Coagulopathies are treated by replacing the deficit factor with a donor. People with congenital coa

gulopathies should always have a patient’s card with them so that if there is a massive bleeding “First Aid” and the hospital staff knew what can stop it.

Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia:

  • Pale skin and mucous membranes (especially the conjunctiva of the eyes);
  • Increased number of heartbeats (tachycardia);
  • Weakness, fatigue;
  • Dizziness (especially when taking a vertical position of the body);
  • Dryness or swelling of the tongue (glossitis);
  • The desire to eat inedible substances: chalk, soil, etc.

Symptoms of hemolytic anemia:

  • Pallor, icterus of the skin, mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes;
  • Darkening of urine;
  • Increased number of heartbeats (tachycardia);
  • Weakness, fatigue, dizziness, dyspnea;
  • Enlargement of the liver;
  • Increased body temperature.

Symptoms of aplastic anemia:

  • Pale skin, multiple bruises of different sizes;
  • Increased body temperature;
  • Increased number of heartbeats (tachycardia);
  • Weakness, fatigue, dizziness;
  • Decreased appetite, weight loss;
  • Dyspnea;
  • Nasal, gingival, gastrointestinal bleeding;
  • Ulcerative stomatitis (multiple ulcerative defects in the mouth, bleeding, with plaque).

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia:

  • Bleeding gums;
  • Frequent nasal bleeding;
  • Frequent bruising;
  • A specific small-scale rash on the body (purpura or petechia) – more often on the legs;
  • Hard-to-stop bleeding after minor cuts, after tooth extraction, etc.;
  • Blood in feces or urine;
  • Prolonged bleeding during menstruation.

Symptoms in cancerous blood diseases – leukemia, lymphoma:

  • Constant weakness, loss of strength;
  • Increased body temperature for a long time;
  • Frequent infections;
  • Unmotivated weight loss;
  • Petechiae (small hemorrhage on the skin and mucous membranes);
    Enlargement of lymph nodes and liver;
  • Increased sweating, especially at night;
  • Increased bleeding, easy formation of bruises.

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