Thromboembolism

General Illness Information

Medical Term: Venous thromboembolism

Common Name: Thromboembolism, VTE, thromboembolic disease, thrombosis

Description: Thromboembolism is a blood clot that starts in a vein.

Classification:

Based on the characteristics of the disease, thromboembolism is classified into:

  1. primary – progresses with a large number of thrombi in the veins;
  2. secondary – thrombi localized in the lungs and the cavity of the myocardium.

Causes:

  • taking medications that increase the viscosity of the blood;
  • staying in one position for a long time;
  • hypertension;
  • stroke;
  • hypertensive crises;
  • heart failure;
  • varicose veins.

In the enlarged veins of the lower extremities, there are excellent conditions for the formation of clots or blood stagnation. That is how venous thromboembolism develops.

Signs & Symptoms:

The disease is characterized by different symptoms depending on the individual characteristics of the organism and the causes of the disease.

If you have one of the symptoms, you should immediately seek qualified medical help:

  • the heart is beating fast;
  • skin has become cyanotic;
  • spontaneous shortness of breath;
  • noises in the heart;
  • sore chest;
  • veins abnormally pulsate;
  • disruption of the digestive tract;
  • symptoms of hypotension.

Diagnosis:

Diagnosing the disease is difficult. After a visual examination, the doctor prescribes the necessary tests in order to confirm the diagnosis. The specialist should determine the provoking factor. First of all, the X-ray of the lungs is prescribed, which allows to determine the lesion and the stage of the disease.

Perfusion scan of the lungs allows the doctor to get information about the presence of a disruption of the location of the isotope in the lung tissue.

Angiopulmonography clarifies the prevailing diagnosis using a contrast agent. ECG allows you to determine the prevailing disease.

Treatment:

With thromboembolism, the treatment should be started immediately. In the acute course of the disease, the patient’s life can be saved only with the help of a closed massage of the heart muscle, artificial ventilation of the lungs, defibrillation. Therapeutic measures restore the heart rhythm.

After recurrence has been prevented, the physician prescribes therapy, which includes:

  • narcotic drugs for relief of pain syndrome;
  • diuretics for reducing the load on the muscular middle layer of the heart;
  • corticosteroids to normalize blood pressure;
  • oxygen therapy – the patient inhales the oxygen mixture;
  • antibiotics for infarct pneumonia;
  • anticoagulants prevent the formation of blood clots;
  • antispasmodics expand the arteries and bronchi;
  • thrombolytics – drugs injected into the blood vessel, which helps dissolve blood clots.

For each stage and symptoms, you need your own treatment. Rarely the patient’s life can be saved. As a rule, death occurs instantly.

Drug therapy is supplemented by surgical intervention (embobectomy). Its main goal is to remove the blood clot. The surgery is accompanied by a high risk and is performed by different methods. The best outcome is when piercing the skin and inserting devices into the vessels. The accuracy of the introduction is provided by the X-ray unit. If necessary, the doctor prescribes an open surgical procedure. To perform the operation, it is necessary to provide artificial circulation. In the postoperative period, the doctor prescribes the medication.

Possible Complications:

The cause of death can be complications. If the treatment was not timely, such complications may arise:

  • infarct pneumonia;
  • pleurisy;
  • the patient lacks oxygen;
  • relapse of the disease within the first 12 months;
  • lethal outcome.

Prevention of thromboembolism will help avoid complications.

Prevention:

Prevention of thromboembolism is aimed at preventing the development of the disease. It implies the prevention of venous thrombosis, strengthening of the heart muscle and blood vessels. Therefore, a person needs to change the way of life, the daily diet, to give up harmful habits, not to exceed the permissible content of cholesterol in the blood avoid stressful situations in everyday life.

Measures of primary prevention:

  • bandage the legs with a bandage elastic medical;
  • in the postoperative period do not stay for a long time without movement, perform physical exercises, gradually increasing the load;
  • perform therapeutic gymnastics;
  • take anticoagulants to prevent blood clots;
  • use cava filters.

It is important to start treating the underlying disease of the cardiovascular system in time.

Prognosis:

In most cases, unfavorable due to the seriousness of the disease.

Other:

Not specified.

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