Dental Diseases

Gingivitis

  • Causes. In most cases, gum disease is the result of incorrect or irregular care of the oral cavity, as well as the use of inappropriate means (toothbrushes, pastes or rinse aid). Disease-creating microorganisms are constantly present in the oral cavity, and in the process of their vital activity, release substances that cause soft plaque to harden. Fragments of food that regularly remain on the teeth accelerate the process, favoring the reproduction of microbes, and within a short time the plaque turns into stone. This formation causes omission and inflammation of the gum. Less common causes of such a disease as gingivitis are gum injuries, impaired immune and endocrine systems, the intake of certain medications that weaken immunity;
  • Symptoms. The initial stage of gingivitis is manifested by bleeding gums. Sometimes this symptom is not obvious: in the process of eating a person can simply feel a taste of blood in his mouth, and only after some time the blood is found on the brush while brushing his teeth. Subsequently, sensitivity of the gums increases, they become friabile, bad breath appears;
  • Treatment. First of all, it’s necessary to identify the causes that provoked gum disease. Basing on the results of the examination, a doctor prescribes physiotherapeutic procedures, a course of medicamental therapy and other methods of treatment, depending on the causes of the disease and the state of the oral cavity. The obligatory stage is the elimination of the infectious component of gum disease and the removal of inflammation.

Periodontitis

  • Causes. Bacteria living in the oral cavity and the products of their vital activity form a soft plaque (dental plaque), which can cause inflammation in soft tissues. In addition, periodontitis can result in an incorrect bite, improperly installed dentures, the habit of gnashing teeth, the presence of tartar, metabolic disorders and decreased functioning of the immune system. Certain medications can also provoke periodontitis;
  • Symptoms. One of the main signs of periodontitis is a condition in which the gum flows, falls, and uncovers part of the neck of the tooth. At the initial stage, its depth is 4 mm. As the disease develops, other symptoms may appear: the gradual destruction of the ligamentous apparatus, the deepening of the dentogingival pockets, the severe bleeding of the gums, the shakiness of the teeth and the destruction of the bone tissues at the roots;
  • Treatment. Treatment implies the removal of supragingival and subgingival stones, removal of the cause of inflammation (by replacing prostheses or seals), the use of local and systemic medicines, physiotherapy procedures and the necessary training of the patient for proper oral hygiene, including the selection of suitable means – pasta and rinse. In severe cases, surgical treatment may be required, including implantation of bone tissue.

Toothstone

  • Causes. The main role in the formation of toothstone is played by microorganisms present on the oral mucosa. Their activity leads to the formation of a soft plaque, which under certain circumstances becomes a “foundation” for toothstone. Such circumstances may be insufficient or incorrect dental care, their too tight location, making it difficult to clean the interdental space, the individual features of the saliva, systemic diseases that change the pH of the oral cavity, and other factors;
  • Symptoms. Dental calculus is often formed on the posterior surface of the lower anterior teeth and the outer side of the lateral, adjacent to the mucous cheeks. External stones can be gray or brown in color. They are not removed even with intensive cleaning with abrasive pastes and powders;
  • Treatment. Diseases of the teeth and gums often begin with toothstone. Its timely and proper treatment prevents gingivitis, periodontitis and other ailments. The tooth stone can be removed in many ways. The choice of method is selected by the doctor and depends on the situation. The treatment plan necessarily includes the selection of the right oral care products: brushes, dental floss, pastes and rinse, which will prevent a relapse.

Caries

  • Causes. Wrong oral hygiene is the main and paramount factor leading to the development of caries. Bacteria present on the surface of the teeth release substances that destroy enamel. The most intensive process occurs in the first 20 minutes after eating – that is why it’s necessary to clean teeth after eating or rinse the mouth with special rinses;
  • Symptoms. The initial stage of caries is asymptomatic, the destruction of enamel can be detected only with the help of modern dental methods. As the disease develops, small spots appear on the surface of the enamel, gradually deepening, visible to the naked eye and affecting tissues located under the enamel. The first symptoms are increased sensitivity when taking cold, hot, sweet and sour food. If nothing is done at this stage, tooth decay can lead to nerve exudation, which will cause severe pain;
  • Treatment. Although caries affects the teeth, the gums also suffer in the absence of treatment. A neglected disease can cause an abscess, and surgery will be required followed by a course of prolonged therapy. Treatment of caries is carried out by removing damaged and destroyed tissues and filling the carious cavity with special materials that restore the anatomical integrity and shape of the tooth. In addition, the patient is recommended toothpastes and rinses for the mouth – they help to prevent repeated damage.

Pulpitis

  • Causes. This disease most often develops as a complication of caries. In those cases when treatment has not been given due attention, or if the approach to therapy was incorrect, the inflammatory process extends to pulp – deep dental tissues. The second most common cause of pulpitis is tooth trauma, in which pathogens penetrate the pulp through damages in the enamel. Systemic infectious processes also affect the development of the disease, since pathogens are able to penetrate into the dental tissues along the bloodstream;
  • Symptoms. Pulpitis is characterized by severe toothache, mainly in the evening and at night. The pain increases with the intake of hot and cold food. Also, painful sensations occur when pressure is applied to the affected tooth. A fever may occur. In severe inflammation, a person is unable to determine the localization of pain – it acquires a spilled character and can be felt throughout the jaw;
  • Treatment. Treatment is carried out by opening the inflamed cavity, removing infected and destroyed tissues, antiseptic treatment, applying drugs that reduce inflammation, filling the canal. In some cases, it becomes necessary to remove the nerve, and sometimes – the tooth. The tactics of treatment are selected depending on the degree of damage, the age of the patient and other factors.

Periodontitis

  • Causes. Inflammation of periodontal tissue – a connective tissue located around the dental root – can be caused by a variety of factors: untreated caries and pulpitis, traumas of the tooth (including chronic trauma), penetration of infection through the blood, from adjacent structures (maxillary sinuses, bones of the facial part of the skull), exposure to periodontal tissues of toxic or potent substances;
  • Symptoms. The most characteristic symptom of acute periodontitis is the “grown up” tooth, which is felt by the patient, as “disturbing”. There is aching pain, the intensity of which grows rapidly. The body temperature rises, the lymph nodes under the lower jaw grow. The touch of food or liquid to the aching tooth causes an acute pain;
  • Treatment. Treatment consists in removing inflamed tissues, opening the root canals, inserting medicines into them, and then sealing them. In addition, local medication is prescribed, aimed at eliminating the inflammatory and infectious processes.

Prevention:

  1. Give up smoking. Smoking causes narrowing of the vessels in the oral mucosa, which leads to poor blood supply and nutritional deficiencies. Quitting nicotine addiction should become an obligatory stage in the prevention of dental and gum diseases;
  2. Proper nutrition. The lack of nutrients, the predominance of flour, sweet, too hot or cold food, the lack of fresh vegetables and fruits can become a factor that provokes the development of dental diseases;
  3. Proper cleaning. Regular and proper oral care is the first thing that helps prevent dental and gum diseases. Use a good toothbrush, “targeted” toothpastes (reducing the sensitivity of teeth, anti-inflammatory, etc.) and dental flosses reduces the likelihood of developing inflammatory and infectious processes;
  4. Using the rinse aid. Rinsers occupy an important place in the prevention of dental diseases. Their advantage is the ability to penetrate the interdental space and remove food particles that are not always available even when cleaning with a toothbrush. In addition, rinsing agents, due to their composition, help maintain the required level of acidity in the oral cavity, have antiseptic effect and prevent the reproduction of bacteria. These tools are convenient to use even in cases when cleaning teeth is impossible for any reason.

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