General Illness Information
Medical Term: Condylomata acuminata, condyloma acuminatum
Common Name: Genital warts
Description: Genital warts are warty formations on the skin and mucous membranes of genital organs.
The development of genital warts is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). There are more than 100 varieties of human papillomaviruses, but, according to some scientists only certain non-oncogenic types can cause the disease.
Human papilloma virus is present in the body of each individual, but genital warts are formed only under certain conditions. These include:
- intimate contacts with a person who has condylomatosis;
- early sexual life;
- casual sexual relationship;
- sex without condoms;
- weakened immunity (HIV-infected, persistent stress, hypovitaminosis, cancer patients, etc.);
- sexually transmitted infections;
- age from 17 to 33 years.
Signs & Symptoms:
The first symptoms of the disease appear in a few weeks or months, in some cases
– in a few years.
As a rule, genital warts occur immediately, and grow quickly, reaching its maximum size after a few hours. The genital warts look like benign formations on a thin pedicel with a wide base, the surface of which is uneven and bumpy.
In connection with this circumstance, they are often compared with cauliflower. Often genital warts are multiple, up to 10-20 formations.
Their dimensions vary from a few millimeters to several centimeters.
In rare cases, genital warts can be of giant sizes, which tend to die on their own due to the fact that they have no vascular network developed. Their color is also different and can be bodily, crimson, pink or red.
The preferred location of genital warts is the anogenital region.
In men, warts is more likely to develop on the penis frenulum or in the region of the coronary sulcus, less often – on the head, scrotum, urethra sponges or on the penis.
In women, genital warts can be observed on the clitoris, large and small labia, on the walls of the vagina and cervix, in the urethra or near it. In both men and women, warts are dislocated in the perineum, around the anus, in the anus and the oropharynx (with oral sex).
Differential diagnosis of genital warts is carried out with wide condylomas, malignant skin lesions, scabious lymphaplasia.
The diagnosis of genital warts is easily established during the visual examination, but the following methods can be used to confirm the diagnosis:
- blood for PCR (confirms the presence of sections of the DNA of the human papillomavirus);
- blood for syphilis and HIV infection;
- smear for oncocytology with condyloma in both sexes and cervix in women;
- screening for sexually transmitted diseases (preferably both sex partners);
- colposcopy for women;
Treatment of condylomata acuminata includes two tasks: the first – the removal of genital warts, the second – the reduction of HPV in the body. There are many ways of treatment of genital warts:
- Cryodestruction – tissue condylomina is exposed to low temperatures, which is why it is destroyed. Cryodestruction is carried out with liquid nitrogen, this is the cheapest procedure, but it requires accuracy and professionalism from the doctor, since there is a danger of burns of the genital tissues as a result of one awkward movement. For these reasons, this method is considered obsolete and is rarely used;
- The method of thermocoagulation is the exposure of genital warts to high temperatures. Treatment of genital warts with this method is affordable, but it also requires doctor’s skills – if you coagulate a healthy tissue under the condyloma, a rough scar may remain;
- Chemical destruction – genital warts are treated with medicines containing concentrated acids. There are many similar drugs on the market – some of them are intended for use in medical institutions, and others – for self-deletion of genital warts at home. However, in practice, everything is different – drugs for self-destruction are not effective, so you’ better see a doctor;
- Laser destruction – treatment of warts with a surgical laser. This method is safe and effective, but it requires expensive equipment, which makes it costly;
- Radiosurgical destruction – the disease is treated with radio waves. This is the most modern and safe method of treating genital warts, but it is expensive, which makes its application limited.
If you have genital warts, treatment should be started immediately.
Condylomata acuminata lead to the following complications:
- trauma of formations;
- suppuration of genital warts;
- phimosis on the bridle of the penis;
- malignant processes in both sexes;
- further growth and spread of genital warts.
The prognosis for genital warts is relatively favorable, since there is a risk of recurrence during removal, as well as the likelihood of transformation into malignant formations.