Pharmacology: Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble, B complex vitamin. It is a precursor of coenzyme A and is essential for acetylation reactions in gluconeogenesis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and in the synthesis of steroid hormones, porphyrins, acetylcholine and other compounds.
Pantothenic acid is a required nutrient, but is so widely distributed that deficiency in humans is unlikely. Pantothenic acid deficiency is usually found in combination with deficiency of other B complex vitamins. Requirements may be increased in malabsorption syndromes such as tropical sprue, celiac disease and enteritis.
Only the dextrorotatory isomer of pantothenic acid has vitamin activity.
Pharmacokinetics: Pantothenic acid is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. It is widely distributed to all body tissues and is not metabolized. About 70% of a dose is excreted unchanged in the urine with the remainder being excreted in the feces. Normal serum concentrations of pantothenic acid are 100 µg/mL or higher.
Indications: Prevention and treatment of deficiency. Pantothenic acid has been used topically in the treatment of minor dermatoses. Precautions
Precautions: Pregnancy: It is not known whether pantothenic acid can cause fetal harm. It should be used in pregnancy only when clearly needed.
Lactation: No data are available.
Adverse Effects: Pantothenic acid is usually nontoxic, even in large doses.
Dosage: In preventing nutrient deficiency, adequate dietary intake is preferred over supplementation whenever possible. For information on food sources of pantothenic acid and other vitamins, see Vitamin Food Sources in the Clin-Info section. Although there are no official recommendations for pantothenic acid daily intake, the following amounts are generally considered adequate: birth to 3 years, 2 to 3 mg; 4 to 6 years, 3 to 4 mg; 7 to 10 years, 4 to 5 mg; over 10 years, 4 to 7 mg.
In the treatment of deficiency, dosage must be individualized, based on the severity of the deficiency. Each 10 mg calcium pantothenate is equivalent to 9.2 mg pantothenic acid.
PANTOTHENIC ACIDGeneral Monograph,Vitamin B5Vitamin