Action And Clinical Pharmacology: Ephedrine is an adrenergic drug which exerts peripheral effects resembling those of epinephrine and central effects resembling those of the amphetamines. Ephedrine produces a more sustained action but is less potent than epinephrine. It stimulates both alpha and beta receptors and its peripheral actions are due partly to norepinephrine release and partly to direct effects on receptors. Ephedrine stimulates the heart, elevating the systolic and usually the diastolic blood pressure. Its vasopressor effect results largely from increased cardiac output and to a lesser extent from peripheral vasoconstriction. Ephedrine produces relaxation of bronchial muscle which is more sustained but less pronounced than that produced by epinephrine. It also stimulates the CNS to a greater extent than epinephrine, but its central action is less potent than that of the amphetamines. The central effects of ephedrine are overshadowed to a large extent by its peripheral actions. It produces sympathomimetic effects when administered orally, parenterally or topically.
Indications And Clinical Uses: Symptomatic relief of nasal congestion associated with a variety of upper respiratory tract illnesses.
Contra-Indications: Known hypersensitivity to pressor amines.
Manufacturers’ Warnings In Clinical States: Do not exceed recommended dosage or take for more than 7 days except on the advice of a physician. Consult a physician prior to use if you have heart or thyroid diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, glaucoma, difficulty in urination due to an enlargement of the prostate gland or if you are taking any prescription drugs. Do not take if you are currently taking or have recently taken MAO inhibitor drugs. Use only on the advice of a physician.
Precautions: Use with caution in hypersensitive and diabetic patients; patients with latent or clinically recognized angle closure glaucoma, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, prostatic hypertrophy, hyperthyroidism, urinary retention.
Pregnancy and Lactation: Safety for use in pregnancy and lactation has not been established.
Geriatrics: The elderly (60 years and older) are more likely to have adverse reactions to sympathomimetics. Overdosage of sympathomimetics in this age group may cause hallucinations, convulsions, CNS depression and death.
Adverse Reactions: Acute toxic reactions are usually extensions of the therapeutic actions of the drug and are most often due to overdosage. Administration of ephedrine may be followed by headache, restlessness, insomnia, anxiety, tension, tremor, weakness, dizziness, confusion, delirium, hallucinations, pallor, respiratory difficulty, palpitation, precordial pain (occasional), sweating, nausea or vomiting. These effects are usually transient and can be minimized by rest and recumbency.
Dosage: The usual adult oral dose is 15 to 30 mg daily or as directed by a physician.
Availability And Storage: 15 mg: Each white, round, flat tablet contains: l-ephedrine 12.29 mg (ephedrine HCl 15 mg). Bottles of 100.
30 mg: Each white, round, flat tablet contains: l-ephedrine 24.58 mg (ephedrine HCl 30 mg). Bottles of 100.
EPHEDRINE HCl Roberts Decongestant
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