A rare disorder, resulting in
excessive thirst and excessive passage of very dilute urine, due to
a hormone deficiency in the pituitary gland, which is situated at
the base of the brain.
Diabetes Insipidus results
from a decreased production of antidiuretic hormone (
vasopressin) , the hormone that normally prevents the kidney from
producing too much urine.
Antidiuretic hormone is produced in
the hypothalamus, then stored and released in the blood stream
by the posterior pituitary. Diabetes insipidus may also occur
with normal levels of antidiuretic hormone, when the kidneys
do not respond normally to the hormone. This condition is
called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
||Diabetes Insipidus may have several
causes which are as follows: Tumor
of the pituitary gland; Head injury, with damage
to pituitary gland; Brain tumor; Infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis; Hemorrhage in the pituitary gland or in
Aneurysms; Kidney disease; Sarcoidosis.
||No specific preventive measures.
|Diagnosis & Treatment|
|Diabetes Insipidus is suspected when a patient presents
with a history of excessive thirst and passing large
amounts of urine (polyuria). Diabetes insipidus should be
distinguished from diabetes mellitus by testing the urine for
sugar. There is no single laboratory test to make a diagnosis
of diabetes insipidus.
Evaluation of diabetes insipidus should
include a 24-hour urine collection for volume, glucose and
If diabetes insipidus is suspected ,
test to determine levels of ADH (antidiuretic
hormone) may be done. However, this test has to
be done in a hospital setting.
involves controlling fluid balance and preventing dehydration;
and identifying and eliminating the cause of the diabetes
weight daily and maintain a record.|
a medical identification bracelet or neck pendant that
indicates your medical problem and the medications you
||Vasopressin or desmopressin
acetate, modified synthetic forms of antidiuretic
hormone, may be taken as a nasal spray several times a day, to
maintain a normal urine output. However, taking too much of
this medication can cause fluid retention and swelling and
||Sometimes diabetes insipidus can be
controlled with drugs that stimulate production of
antidiuretic hormone such as chlorpropamide, carbamazepine,
special diet. Drink as much water as you feel you
especially low sodium or potassium deficiency. Either of
these can cause heartbeat irregularity, fatigue and
congestive heart failure.
prognosis is generally good depending on the underlying